The Paris Agreement was negotiated and will be implemented under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). After its adoption at the Paris Conference on Climate Change (COP21) in 2015, the Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 – 30 days after over 55 parties to the Convention deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or adherence at the United Nations (UN). These countries account for over 55% of the total estimated global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG).

Brazil’s contribution under the Paris Agreement was ambitious, as it was the only big developing country to adopt absolute reduction targets for its whole economy. Brazil ratified the Paris Agreement on September 12th, 2016, and the ratification instrument was deposited at the UN Headquarters by President Michel Temer on 21 September.

Brazil’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) includes includes the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in 37% by 2025, with a further indicative target of a 43% reduction by 2030 – both compared to 2005 levels.